Category Archives: NetApp Simulator

Installing the ONTAP 9.7 simulator in Fusion 12.1

At the time of writing this 9.8 is available but I’m specifically writing this for someone who is trying to install 9.7 and having problems. Before I get into the actual simulator installation we need to come cover some stuff around VMware Fusion first.

With regards to networking, VMware Fusion can provide three different interface types, they are as follows:

  1. Bridged – this type puts the interface directly on the same LAN as your Mac, this is great if you want the VM to appear as though it’s on the network that your Mac is using.
  2. Host-only – this is a completely isolated network, the only hosts that can access it are those on your Mac configured with this type of interface. There is no external access with this type.
  3. NAT – this is similar to number two, but allows the host with this type to reach out of the Mac, such as for Internet access.

    If you want more details on this please go read this KB.

By default, the simulator has four network interface; the first two, e0a/e0b are for the ClusterNet network, the back-end network used by cluster nodes to communicate with each other, and should be of type host-only. The second two, e0c/e0d are for client access and management access, these are of type NAT but can also be set to bridged. If you use Nat, then VMware will assign IP addresses via DHCP based on the configuration of the VMNET8 interface settings; to view this cat the file located here:

/Library/Preferences/VMware\ Fusion/vmnet8/dhcpd.conf

Mine looks like this:

allow unknown-clients;
default-lease-time 1800;                # default is 30 minutes
max-lease-time 7200;                    # default is 2 hours

subnet netmask {
	option broadcast-address;
	option domain-name-servers;
	option domain-name localdomain;
	default-lease-time 1800;                # default is 30 minutes
	max-lease-time 7200;                    # default is 2 hours
	option netbios-name-servers;
	option routers;
host vmnet8 {
	hardware ethernet 00:50:56:C0:00:08;
	option domain-name-servers;
	option domain-name "";
	option routers;

What this means is that any interface set to NAT in my instance of Fusion will receive DHCP addresses in the subnet, but the DHCP pool itself is only 172.16.133.[128-254]. The subnet mask will still be (ie: /24) and the default gateway is as that is the internal interface of the virtual router created to do the NAT; .1 is held by the “external” interface which you can view by issuing an ifconfig vmnet8 at the command prompt. Note, this interface is created when Fusion is launched and torn down when you quit. If you set the interface type to bridged, those interfaces will get DHCP addresses from the same LAN that the Mac is connected to.

On to the actual installation…

First thing you need to do is download the OVA from NetApp:

  1. Go to
  2. login (yes, required)
  3. At the top click Downloads → Product Evaluation
  4. Click “Data ONTAP™ Simulator
  5. Agree to the terms
  6. Download the OVA and license keys for the version you’re looking for.

Now that you have the OVA, you’re ready to import it into Fusion. Launch Fusion, then click the + sign and choose Import:


Browse for and open the downloaded OVA:

choose file

Now click continue:


Give the folder you’re going to store it in a name and click save, I like to name it after the node:

ONTAP 9.7, Node 1

Fusion will import the OVA and present you with the settings. You can modify them if you want, but for now I’m going to leave them as default. Click Finish:


You’ll likely be asked if you’d like to upgrade the VM version, don’t bother:

At this point the vSIM will boot for its first time, I believe the official instructions tell you to hit CTRL-C, halt the boot and call for the maintenance menu then issue an option 4, but if this is the first node you do not have to do that. The root aggregate is automatically created:

First boot with aggr0 creation

Now you can open a browser and point it at the IP address listed on your screen, in my case it will be, but it may be different for you. You will get a certificate error, but bypass that to access the GUI to finish the configuration. IF you do not get the following screen or get no site at all, there’s something else wrong. Also, hover your mouse over the node in the Health card, if the serial number doesn’t appear, refresh the web page, otherwise configuration will fail:

No node serial

It should look like this:

With node serial

Now enter all the required information, since the IP addresses are being statically assigned, I’m choosing ones outside of the DHCP range, as should you:

Cluster name and admin password
Networking information

I don’t check the “single-node” box, it will still work as a single node if you don’t but if you do, it removes the ClusterNet interfaces completely. I like having those interfaces for experimentation and teaching purposes; also it keeps the door open to adding a second node, which I will cover in a follow up post if there is anyone interested. Now click Submit:

other info

At this point I like to start pinging either the cluster IP I specified or the node IP so I can see when the cluster gets configured since the browser doesn’t always refresh to the new IP address:


Once ping starts responding, go ahead and visit the new IP address via your browser:

Now the person I wrote this blog entry for isn’t getting the GUI above, but instead the GUI for the out-of-band interface for a UCS server, so the IP space their vmnet8 is using collides with production IP space. This can be verified at this point by disconnecting any Ethernet connections and turning off WiFi, once that is done, reload the browser and the IP conflict should be resolved until you’re connected once again. To resolve it permanently, that person will need to edit the dhcpd.conf file for vmnet8 mentioned above, using a subnet known to not conflict. Here’s an example, alternative dhcpd.conf:

allow unknown-clients;
default-lease-time 1800;                # default is 30 minutes
max-lease-time 7200;                    # default is 2 hours

subnet netmask {
	option broadcast-address;
	option domain-name-servers;
	option domain-name localdomain;
	default-lease-time 1800;                # default is 30 minutes
	max-lease-time 7200;                    # default is 2 hours
	option netbios-name-servers;
	option routers;
host vmnet8 {
	hardware ethernet 00:50:56:C0:00:08;
	option domain-name-servers;
	option domain-name "";
	option routers;

This changes the subnet in use to with the DHCP range being 10.0.0.[128-254] and the default gateway of VMs using it to

This is where I’m going to end this post for now as the simulator is now accessible via HTTPS and SSH and ONTAP is ready to be configured. You will still need to assign disks, create a local storage tier (aggregate) as well as an SVM with volume(s) for data among other things. The intent of this post was to get this far, not to teach ONTAP. If you’d like to see a post around either adding a second node to the cluster or configuring ONTAP on the first one, please leave a comment and I’ll try and get around to it.

NetApp Volume Encryption, The Nitty Gritty

It all begins in the configuration builder tool

This article focuses on the implementation and management of encryption with NetApp storage. Data at Rest Encryption (NetApp Volume Encryption or NVE for short) is one of the ways that you can achieve encryption with NetApp, and it’s one of the most exciting new features of ONTAP 9.1. Here’s how you go about implementing it.

If you’re a partner or NetApp SE, when building configurations, as long as the cluster software version is set to 9.x, there is a checkbox that lets you decide which version of ONTAP gets written to the device at the factory. As of 9.1, ONTAP software images will either be capable of encryption via a software encryption module, or not. There are laws around both the import and export of software that is capable of encryption, but that is beyond the scope of this article. I do know you can use the encryption-capable image in Canada (where I am located), so I’m covered. If you’re unsure about the laws in your country, consult your legal adviser on this matter.

Once this cluster-level toggle has been set and you add hardware into the configuration, there are two more checkboxes in the software section:

  1. NetApp Volume Encryption (off by default)
  2. Trusted Platform Module (TPM, on by default) ***Clarification Update*** – TPM NOT REQUIRED FOR NVE

The first one triggers the generation of the license key for NVE and the second one activates a piece of hardware dedicated to deal with cryptographic keys. One thing I’m still not sure of is (should you choose to remove the checkmark)  if the TPM is simply disabled or doesn’t physically exist in your NetApp controller, I have an email into NetApp to confirm this. [Update: The module is integral to the controller and disabled in firmware if being shipped to certain countries. Shout out to @Keith_Aasen for tracking that down for me.]

Okay, now for the more customer-relevant information…

To get started with NVE, you’re going to need a few things:

  1. A encryption-capable platform
  2. A encryption-capable image of ONTAP
  3. A key manager
  4. A license key for NVE

Encryption-capable platform

The following platforms are currently capable of encryption: FAS6290, FAS80xx, FAS8200, and AFF A300. This is limited by the CPU in the platform as it must have a sufficient clock-speed and core-count with support for the AES instruction set. I’m sure this list will be ever-expanding, but be sure to check first if you’re hoping to use NVE. [UPDATE: After some digging, I can confirm that all the new models support NVE, the entry-level FAS2650 included.]

Encryption-capable image of ONTAP

Provided you’re not in a restricted country as per the above, your image will be the standard nomenclature of X_q_image.tgz where X is the version number. The non-encryption-capable version will be X_q_nodar_image.tgz which I’ll simply refer to as nodar(e) (No Data At Rest Encryption) for the rest of this article. The output of version -v will tell you if you’re nodar or standard.

NetApp Release 9.1RC1: Sun Sep 25 20:10:49 UTC 2016 <1O>

NetApp Release 9.1RC1: Sun Sep 25 20:10:49 UTC 2016 <1Ono-DARE>

Key manager

The on-board key manager introduced in ONTAP 9.0 enables you to manage keys for use with your NSE drives, helping you avoid costly and possibly complex external solutions. Currently, NVE only supports using the on-board manager, so if you’re going to use NVE layered on top of NSE, you need to use the on-board one.

Setting this up is exactly one command:

security key-manager setup

You’ll be prompted for a passphrase, and that’s it, you’re done.

License key for NVE

If you didn’t get this license key at time of purchase, talk to your account representative or SE over at NetApp (though, hopefully, if you’ve bought one of the new systems announced at Insight 2016, they decided to include it since, at least for now, it is a no-cost license).

What next?

Now that you’ve got all the prerequisites covered, encrypting your data is very simple. As the name implies, encryption is done at the volume level, so naturally it’s a volume command that encrypts the data (a volume move command, in fact):

volume move start -volume vol_name -destination-aggregate aggr_name -encrypt-destination true

The destination aggregate can even be the same aggregate that the volume is already hosted on. Don’t want that volume encrypted anymore for some reason? Change that last flag to false.

If you’re creating a new volume that you want encrypted, that’s just as simple:

volume create -volume vol_name -aggregate aggr_name -size 1g -encrypt true

Wrapping up

NetApp Volume Encryption is pretty easy, but since it’s so new, OnCommand System Manager doesn’t support it just yet. You’ll have to stick to the CLI for now, although I’m sure the GUI will catch up eventually, if that’s your preferred point of administration. It should also be noted that while NSE solutions are FIPS 140-2 compliant, NVE has yet to go through the qualifications. Also, if FIPS is a requirement, the on-board key manager isn’t compliant yet either. Since with the on-board key manager the keys are literally stored on the same hardware using them, NVE only protects you from compromised data on individual drives removed from your environment through theft or RMA. If someone gained wholesale access to the HA pairs, the data would still be retrievable. Also, this is for data-at-rest only. You must follow other precautions for data-in-flight encryption.

Into the weeds

I did all my tests for this post using the simulator, and I learned a lot, but your mileage may vary. In the end, only you are responsible for what you do to your data. I had heard that if you have the wrong software image then you’d have to do a complete wipe of your HA pair in order to convert it. I have since proven this wrong (at least in the simulator) and I definitely can’t guarantee the following will be supported.

For my tests I had two boot images loaded: one standard and one nodar. What I learned is that you can boot into either mode, provided you don’t have any encrypted data. Even if you have the key manager setup and NVE is licensed, you can still boot back and forth. The first time you boot your system using the nodar image with encrypted data on the system, however, you’ll hose the whole thing. I did test first encrypting data, then decrypting it, then converting to nodar, and the simulator booted fine. When I booted into nodar with an encrypted volume, even going back to standard didn’t work. Booting into maintenance mode shows the aggregates with a status of partial and the boot process hints that they are in some sort of transition phase (7MTT?). Either way, I was unable to recover my simulator once I got it to this state, so I definitely advise against it in production. Heck, I’d advise you just to use the proper image to start with.

I hope you learned something. If you have any questions or comments, either post them below or reach out on twitter. I’m @ChrisMaki from the #NetAppATeam and Solution Architect @ScalarDecisions.

Simulate a two node cDOT 8.2 cluster on ESXi 5.1 in 17 easy steps.

Here’s a quick-how to I wrote a few months back when I ran into trouble trying to install the cDOT simulator in an ESXi environment. This was done on 5.1 but should work for 5.0 and 5.5 as well.

  1. Load the vmware multiextent module “/sbin/vmkload_mod multiextent” (Add this to /etc/rc.local.d/ so it gets loaded on boot going forward. This used to be loaded by default but that changed in VMWare 4.1, more here.)
  2. Create a new vSwitch to use for the Cluster Network.
  3. Download the 8.2 cDOT VMDK here.
  4. Untar and ungzip the vsim_esx-cm.tgz and copy it to your datastore.
  5. Using vCentre, browse the directory on your datastore that contains the unarchived files above.
  6. Locate DataONTAP.vmx, right-click and choose “Add to Inventory.”
  7. Give it a name (cDOT 8.2 Cluster node 1), choose a host, click Finish. DO NOT POWER IT ON YET.
  8. Edit the properties of this newly created VM and make sure that the first two NICs (e0a and e0b) are on the cluster vSwitch.
  9. Power on the vm and open the console.
  10. Hit CTRL-C to enter the Boot Menu.
  11. Choose option 4, type “yes” to the two questions and wait for your disks to zero.
  12. Run through the cluster setup script, entering the licenses required (available here) when prompted. The only required one is the Cluster License itself, the rest can be added later.
  13. Repeat steps 4-8 from above, choosing a different name in step 7 (cDOT 8.2 Cluster node 2). You MUST repeat step 4, do NOT leverage cloning, it will NOT work.
  14. When you power up this VM, it is VERY important to not let it boot, so open up the console right away and hit any key other than Enter for the VLOADER prompt.
  15. Set and verify the SYS_SERIAL_NUM and bootarg.nvram.sysid as described on page 32, steps 10 and 11 in the Simulate ONTAP 8.2 Installation and Setup Guide.
  16. Type boot at the VLOADER prompt to boot the node.
  17. Repeat steps 10-13 from above, choosing to join an existing cluster and using the second set of licenses located in the text file linked to in step 12. ONTAP 8.2 introduced node-locked licensing so it is important to use the right keys.


You should now have a functioning, simulated two node cluster.